The Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002, allows banks and financial institutions to auction properties (residential and commercial) when borrowers fail to repay their loans. It enables banks to reduce their non-performing assets (NPAs) by adopting measures for recovery or reconstruction.

When do properties fall under this Act?
If a borrower defaults on repayment of his/her home loan for six months at stretch, banks give him/her a 60-day period to regularise the repayment, that is, start repaying. On failure to do so, banks declare the loan an NPA and auction it to recover the debt.

Methods of Recovery
According to this act, the registration and regulation of securitization companies or reconstruction companies is done by RBI. These companies are authorized to raise funds by issuing security receipts to qualified institutional buyers (QIBs), empowering banks and Fls to take possession of securities given for financial assistance and sell or lease the same to take over management in the event of default.
This act makes provisions for two main methods of recovery of the NPAs as follows:
  Securitisation: Securitisation is the process of issuing marketable securities backed by a pool of existing assets such as auto or home loans. After an asset is converted into a marketable security, it is sold. A securitization company or reconstruction company may raise funds from only the QIB (Qualified Institutional Buyers) by forming schemes for acquiring financial assets.
    Asset Reconstruction: Enacting SARFAESI Act has given birth to the Asset Reconstruction Companies in India. It can be done by either proper management of the business of the borrower, or by taking over it or by selling a part or whole of the business or by rescheduling of payment of debts payable by the borrower enforcement of security interest in accordance with the provisions of this Act.
Further, the act provides Exemption from the registration of security receipt. This means that when the securitization company or reconstruction company issues receipts, the holder of the receipts is entitled to undivided interests in the financial assets and there is not need of registration unless and otherwise it is compulsory under the Registration Act 1908.
However, the registration of the security receipt is required in the following cases:
There is a transfer of receipt
 The security receipt is creating, declaring, assigning, limiting, extinguishing any right title or interest in a immovable property.



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