Dear Readers, we are providing Current Affairs of 1-20 July for upcoming SBI PO Mains and RBI grade B officer exam. It will help you to score more in General awareness section.
2. India’s first integrated Defence Communication Network (DCN) was launched by Union Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar in South Block, Delhi
3. Renowned Marathi literary scholar Dr. Ramchandra Chintaman Dhere passed away after prolonged illness in Pune, Maharashtra. He was 86.
4. Rodrigo Duterte was sworn in as the Philippines' 16th president inside the Malacanang presidential palace in Manila. He will have a six-year term.
5. The Railways Minister Suresh Prabhakar Prabhu on 30 June 2016 launched NIVARAN portal, an online system for redressal of service related grievance of serving current and former railway employees.
6. The Union Minister for Human Resource Development Smriti Zubin Irani launched the Prashikshak, a teacher education portal, with a vision to strengthen District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs) and bring quality teachers into the Indian school education system.
7. Argentina women’s team has won the 2016 Champions Trophy title of Hockey by defeating Netherlands. In the final match played at the Lee Valley Hockey and Tennis Centre in London, UK, Argentina women’s team defeated Netherlands by 2-1 goals.
8. The medium range surface-to-air missile missile (MR-SAM) developed jointly by India and Israel was successfully test-fired. During the test, the missile was launched from a mobile launcher in the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur, Odisha.
9. Kerala Government has banned ‘electronic cigarette’ alias ‘e-. cigarette’ as its use can cause various health issues, including cancer and heart ailments. In this regard, an order was issued that banned the production, sale and advertisement of e-cigarettes in the state.
10. India was ranked low at 105th position out of 130 countries globally on the 2016 Human Capital Index (HCI), which was recently released in the World Economic Forum (WEF) report.Finland (1st position), Norway (2nd),
11. he 2016 National Doctors’ Day was observed on 1 July 2016 across India.
12. Indian Navy launched the fourth in the series of Follow-on Water Jet Fast Attack Craft (FO-WJFAC) called INS Tarasa. It was launched at the Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd (GRSE), Kolkata.
13. Exercise RIMPAC 2016, the Pacific military exercise, began on 30 June 2016 at Hawaii with 26 nations participating in the war games that will cover the Hawaiian Island and southern California.
14. Renowned Marathi writer Ramchandra Chintaman Dhere passed away on 1 July 2016 following prolonged illness. He was 86.Dhere was known for his exhaustive research in folk literature and bhakti tradition of Maharashtra.
15. A Rapid Rural Police Response System was launched across Punjab on 1 July 2016. The system was launched to ensure prompt and effective police response in over 12000 villages in Punjab.
16. The Union Sports Ministry has granted recognition to Paralympic Committee of India (PCI) after the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) announced temporary lifting of suspension on it. This recognition gives a huge confidence boost to the several para-athletes who have qualified for 2016 Rio Paralympics.
17. India’s largest food products marketing organization Amul has become the official sponsor of Indian contingent to the 2016 Rio Olympics.
18. Private sector lender Axis Bank launched an innovation lab on Wednesday to hone start-ups and announced that it will create a dedicated fund to invest in these new-age companies that would benefit its business.
19. State Bank of India has inked agreements with the World Bank for a $625-million (around Rs. 4,200 crore) facility to support grid connected rooftop solar programme in the country.
20. Saudi Arabia was unanimously elected as the International Cricket Council’s (ICC) 39th Associate Member during its full council meeting in Edinburgh.
21. A former teacher has made political history by becoming the first indigenous woman elected to Australia’s lower house of parliament, winning a seat for the centre-left Labour party after national polls.
22. The 2016 BRICS Youth Summit held in Guwahati, Assam concluded . The theme of the 2nd youth summit that started on 1 July 2016 was “Youth as bridge for Intra-BRICS Exchanges”.
23. Lewis Hamilton won the 2016 Austrian Grand Prix at the Red Bull Ring in Spielberg, Austria.
24. Indian shuttler B Sai Praneeth clinched the Canada Open Grand Prix Badminton Men’s Singles title at Calgary.
25. Michel Rocard, former Prime Minister of France, passed away in Paris, France. He was 85.
26. Michael Cimino, the director of the Vietnam War classic The Deer Hunter, died on 2 July 2016 at his Los Angeles home. He was 77.
27. India’s first Commercial Court and Commercial Disputes Resolution Centre was inaugurated at Raipur, capital of Chhattisgarh.
28. Union Council of Ministers was reshuffled and expanded with inclusion of 19 new Ministers of State on 5 July 2016. The new inductees were administered the oath of office and secrecy at the Rashtrapati Bhavan by President Pranab Mukherjee. Besides, Minister of State with independent charge, Prakash Javdekar was elevated to the Cabinet rank.
29. NASA’s Juno spacecraft has successfully entered into the orbit of Jupiter on 4th July 2016 and started orbiting solar system’s most massive planet. The spacecraft was launched by NASA as part of its New Frontiers program in 2011 to study.
30. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the first week of July 2016 gave its approval to the New Horizons mission to investigate a mysterious object deep in the Kuiper Belt.
31. Javeline thrower Annu Rani on 2 July 2016 bettered her national record with a 59.87m throw at the 56th National Inter-State Senior Athletics Championships in Hyderabad.
32. Noted scientist Madhav Dhekane on 1 July 2016 assumed the office of Director at ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU), Department of Space, at Vattiyoorkavu in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.
33. American actor Noel Neill, the first actor to play the role Lois Lane on the Adventures of Superman television series died on 3 July 2016. She was 95.
34. Para swimmer Niranjan Mukundan won eight medals, including three gold medals, at the International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports (IWAS) U-23 World Games.
35. India is going to host meet of the heads of anti-narcotics agencies of BRICS nations to discuss issues related to narco-terrorism and money laundering. This meet will be held ahead of the eighth annual Summit of BRICS (Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa nations scheduled in October 2016.
36. Sudarshan Sen has been as Executive Director of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). He will replace NS Vishwanathan who was elevated as Deputy Governor of RBI.
37. Aditya Birla Fashion and Retail (ABFRL)acquired global clothing brand Forever 21 in the Indian market for 26 million US dollars.
38. The Union Cabinet on 5 July 2016 approved the National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme to train 50 lakh apprentices by 2019-20.
39. The Union Cabinet has given its in-principle approval for setting up a Major port at Enayam near Colachel in Tamil Nadu. On completion the port will become country’s 13th major port.
40. The world’s largest Charkha was unveiled at the Terminal 3 of the Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGI) in New Delhi. It was unveiled by the Union Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Minister Kalraj Mishra to remind India’s timeless heritage and the values of sustainability and harmony that it stands for.
41. The Union Finance Ministry has constituted four members committee to examine the feasibility and desirability of having a new financial year.
42. 1982 batch IAS officer Deepak Singhal was on 6 July 2016 appointed as the Chief Secretary of Uttar Pradesh. Singhal succeeds 1978 batch officer Alok Ranjan, who retired on 30 June 2016 after a three-month extension of service.
43. Scientists has named a newly discovered species of tarantula (a big hairy spider) was named as Kankuamo Marquezi after the famed Colombian novelist and 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature winner Gabriel Garcia Marquez.
44. India was placed at 91st position in the Networked Readiness Index (NRI) 2016 that was released by the Geneva-based World Economic Forum (WEF) . Finland, Switzerland, Sweden, Israel, Singapore, the Netherlands and the US are leading the world.
45. The 139th Rath Yatra of Lord Jagannath commenced on 6 July 2016 in Puri, Odisha. The nine-day-long Rath Yatra will see congregation of more than 10 lakh devotees from India and abroad.
46. China inducted its largest indigenously-built transport aircraft named as Y-20, marking a crucial step in its Air Force history for improving its strategic power projection capability.
47. Rajasthan has become the first state in the country to introduce minimum wages for part time workers. In this regard, the Labour Department has issued a notification.
48. India’s largest lender State Bank of India (SBI) recently had launched SBI Mingle, a social media banking platform for Facebook and Twitter users. It was launched by SBI Chairman Arundhati Bhattacharya, on the occasion of 61st State Bank Day (observed on 1st July).
49. India, Mozambique sign MoUs on drug trafficking, pulse trading and sports.These MoUs were signed between two countries at Maputo, Mozambique during the visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi to Mozambique.
50. South African writer, filmmaker and photographer Lidudumalingani Mqombothi on 5 July 2016 won the 17th edition of prestigious Caine Prize 2016 for his short story Memories We Lost.
51. Russian President Vladimir Putin in July 2016 signed the “anti-terrorist” legislation adopted by the lower and upper houses of parliament in June 2016. This anti-terror amendment is dubbed as Big Brother by US intelligence contractor turned privacy activist Edward Snowden.
52. Search Giant Google on 6 July 2016 acquired Moodstocks, a startup based out of Paris that develops machine-learning based image recognition technology for smartphones.
53. Noted music director Om Prakash Sonik, also known as Omi, part of the Sonik-Omi duo, died in Mumbai on 7 July 2016. He was 77.
54. India and South Africa have signed Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) and agreements in four areas of bilateral co-operation. These MoUs were signed in presence of Prime Minister Narendra Modi and South African President Jacob Juma in Pretoria, South Africa.
55. Captain Radhika Menon became the first woman in the world to receive the Award for Exceptional Bravery at Sea for the year 2016 from the International Maritime Organisation (IMO).
56. The Union Government has launched Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) portal (http://kvk.icar.gov.in). It was launched by Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Radha Mohan Singh in New Delhi. The portal aims to provide information and advisory to the farmers and facilitate online monitoring of the KVK activities.
57. Second phase of Haritha Haram programme launched in Telangana.
58. Legendary Pakistani philanthropist Abdul Sattar Edhi, who had dedicated his life to humanity and serving the poor, has died here from renal failure.
59. Britain's Andy Murray claimed his second Wimbledon title with a clinical 6-4 7-6(3) 7-6(2) defeat of big-serving Canadian Milos Raonic on Centre Court.
60. Aditya Puri, the chief executive and managing director of the second largest private sector lender HDFC Bank, has been ranked as the best banking CEO in Asia by the investor community.
61. Seeking to enhance its ties with resource-rich Tanzania, India today extended its full support to it to meet its development needs and signed five agreements, including one for providing a Line of Credit of USD 92 million in the water resources sector.
62. The 2-day long NATO Summit concluded on 9 July 2016 in Warsaw, Poland. It was the 27th summit biannual summit of NATO since its inception in 1949.
63. Portugal has won the 2016 UEFA European football championship (Euro Cup 2016) by defeating host France. It was Portugal’s first UEFA European Championship title. In the final match, played at Stade de France (Paris, France) Portugal defeated France by 1-0 goal score.
64. World Population Day was observed on 11 July 2016 with theme Investing in teenage girls.
65. Nepal’s Parliamentary Hearing Special Committee (PHSC) unanimously endorsed Sushila Karki as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.With this, Karki has become the first woman to lead Nepal’s judiciary.
66. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s ruling Liberal Democratic Party and its allies claimed victory in an election for the upper house of parliament National Diet.
67. Tripura Governor Tathagata Roy has sworn in as the acting Governor of Arunachal Pradesh. With this he becomes 18th Governor to be sworn in as Governor of Tripura.
68. Mercedes driver Lewis Hamilton from Great Britain has won the 2016 British Grand Prix title of Formula One.
69. Winners of 2016 Wimbledon Championships of Tennis
Men’s Singles Title Britain’s Andy Murray won the 2016 Wimbledon title in men’s singles category. It was his second Wimbledon title after he had won it for first time in 2013. In final match he defeated Canada’s Milos Raonic by 6–4, 7–6(7–3), 7–6(7–2) score.
Women’s Singles Title Serena Williams of United States has won 2016 Wimbledon title in women’s singles category. In the final match played she defeated Germany’s Angelique Kerber by 7–5, 6–3 score. It is Williams’ seventh Women’s Singles Wimbledon title (2002, 2003, 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2015) and overall 22nd Grand Slam title.
Men’s Doubles Title French pair of Pierre-Hugues Herbert and Nicolas Mahut won the 2016 Wimbledon title in the men’s doubles category. In the final match they defeated French pair Julien Benneteau and Édouard Roger-Vasselin by 6–4, 7–6(7–1), 6–3 score.
Women’s Doubles US pair of Serena Williams and Venus Williams won the 2016 Wimbledon title in the women’s doubles category. They defeated Tímea Babos (Hungary) and Yaroslava Shvedova (Kazakhstan) pair by 6–3, 6–4 score.
Mixed Doubles Title Henri Kontinen (Finland) and Heather Watson (United Kingdom) pair won the 2016 Wimbledon title in the mixed doubles category. They defeated Robert Farah (Colombia) and Anna-Lena Grönefeld (Germany) pair by 7–6(7–5), 6–4 score.
70. The Union Government in the first week of July 2016 appointed Utpal Bora as the full-time chairman of Oil India Ltd.
71. President Pranab Mukherjee conferred the 51st Jnanpith Award on renowned Gujarati writer Dr. Raghuveer Chaudhari at Parliament Library Building, New Delhi. He was awarded with the India's highest literary honour for the year 2015.
72. Bollywood superstars Shahrukh Khan and Akshay Kumar are among the world’s highest-paid celebrities of 2016, according to an annual list by Forbes.The list has been topped by American singer Taylor Swift with an earning of $170 million.
73. Sanjay Gupta has been appointed as chairman and managing director (CMD) of Konkan Railway Corporation Limited (KRCL).
74. The World Population Day is observed across the world on July 11 to attention on the urgency and importance of population issue. 2016 Theme: “Investing in teenage girls”. It focuses on the empowerment of teenage girls.
75. The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) in Hague, the Netherlands has rejected China’s claims to economic rights across large swathes of South China Sea. Ruling in this regard was given by a five-member tribunal appointed by the Permanent Court of Arbitration in Hague in a case brought by the Philippines.
76. State Bank of India (SBI) in the second week of July 2016 signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Indian Institute of Technology Society for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (SINE). The MoU was signed to promote innovation by start-ups in the financial sector.
77. India and Bangladesh signed a landmark deal for the construction of Rampal Power Station, a 1320 megawatt coal fired power plant.
78. Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Sunil Lanba commissioned INS Karna in Vishakhapatnam.INS Karma is a dedicated base for Marine Commandos (MARCOS), which is a Special Operation Forces of Indian Navy.
79. The book titled Ringside With Vijender authored by Rudraneil Sengupta released .
80. The Union Government has notified the UIDAI (Terms and Conditions of Service of Chairperson and Members) Rules, 2016 to give legal status to Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI). These rules have been framed as per provisions of Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016.
81. The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved the disinvestment of 15 per cent paid-up equity in NBCC India Ltd out of Government’s 90 per cent shareholding.
82. The first direct bus service between Pokhara (Nepal) and New Delhi (India) was launched to connect South Asia’s two important cities. The bus service was flagged off by Nepal Home Minister Shakti Bahadur Basnet and India’s ambassador to Nepal Ranjit Rae from Pokhara (Nepal’s famous tourist spot).
83. Queen Elizabeth-II appointed Theresa May as the 76th Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (UK) on 13 June 2016. She was appointed as prime minister following her election as the leader of Britain's ruling Conservative Party.
84. Union Government constituted a high-level committee to review the minimum support price (MSP) and bonus for pulses. The committee will be headed by Chief Economic Adviser Arvind Subramanian. It has been asked to submit its report within two weeks.
85. Hockey Olympian Joe Antic passed away in Mumbai. He was 90. Antic represented the country in the Rome Games where Pakistan won the final between the arch-foes 1-0.
86. The Union Cabinet approved the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) with an outlay of 12000 crore rupees to impart skilling to one crore people over the next four years (2016-2020).
PMKVY will impart fresh training to 60 lakh youths and certify skills of 40 lakh persons acquired non-formally under the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). The target allocation between fresh trainings and RPL will be flexible and interchangeable depending on functional and operational requirements.
87. The Union Government has started the operation ‘Sankat Mochan’ to evacuate Indian citizens stranded in South Sudan’s capital Juba. Sankat Mochan in Hindi means reliever from troubles. The operation is being undertaken by Indian Air Force (IAF) and will be headed by Union Minister of State (MoS) for External Affairs General (Retd.) VK Singh.
88. The Union Government and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) signed a 100 million US dollars loan agreement to strengthen key irrigation and drainage system and improve water management in the Vennar sub-basin of the Cauvery delta in Tamil Nadu.
89. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on 14 July 2016 constituted an inter regulatory Working Group (WG) to study the entire gamut of regulatory issues relating to Fin Tech (financial technology) and Digital Banking in India.The 13-member working group will be headed by Sudarshan Sen, the executive director of RBI.
90. The World Youth Skills Day (WYSD) was on 15 July 2016 observed globally with the theme Skills Development to Improve Youth Employment.
91. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared India as Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus free. In this regard, WHO presented certificates to the Union Health and Family Welfare Minister J P Nadda
92. Pakistan captain Misbah-ul-Haq scored 110 against England at Lord's. With this, the 42 years and 47 days old cricketer became the oldest captain to score Test hundred.
93. The eleventh edition of Asia-Europe Meeting Summit (ASEM11) or ASEM2016 began in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia. The theme of the Summit is ‘Partnership for the Future through Connectivity‘.
94. The Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) successfully conducted proof firing tests of Armament system for 155 mm x 52 calibre New Advanced Towed Artillery Artillery Gun System (ATAGS). The tests were conducted as part of technical trials at Proof & Experimental Establishment (PXE) in Balasore, Odisha.
95. Senior IAS officer Rakesh Kumar Chaturvedi has been appointed as the new Chairman of the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). His appointment was made by the Appointment Committee of the Cabinet (ACC) headed by Prime Minister Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
96. India’s Chess Grand Master Harika Dronavalli has won the Fide Women’s Grand Prix trophy in Chendu, China. It was her maiden career GP title. She won this title by defeating Russia’s Olga Girya.
97. KVR Murthy was appointed as the Chairman-cum-Managing Director (CMD) of the Jute Corporation of India Limited (JCIL).
98. The ruins of ancient Nalanda Mahavihara (also known as old Nalanda University) of Bihar has been included in the Tentative List of UNESCO’s World Heritage Site. Nalanda Mahavihara ruins comprise the archaeological remains of monastic-cum-scholastic from the 5th century BC to the 13th century AD. It located near Patna, state capital of Bihar.
99. Madhya Pradesh Cabinet on 15 July 2016 gave its nod to set up Happiness Department in the state. The department will work as knowledge resource centre on the subject of happiness.
100. A book titled Who Moved My Interest Rate? authored by Duvvuri Subbarao, the former Governor of Reserve Bank of India (RBI), will be released on 27 July 2016.
101. A book titled Courage & Commitment: An Autobiography by Margaret Alva was in news in the second week of July 2016.
102. The World Youth Skills Day (WYSD) was on 15 July 2016 observed globally with the theme Skills Development to Improve Youth Employment.
103. The Lifeline Express, the world’s first hospital on a train of Indian Railways has completed 25 years of service to the poor and underprivileged masses of rural India. To mark the occasion and celebrate the success of the train a function was held in Mumbai, Maharashtra.
104. Tata Advanced Systems Ltd (TASL) and US-based Bell Helicopter have signed a deal to jointly develop the helicopter market in India. The agreement seeks to support of India’s aviation and defence modernization initiatives with an emphasis on ‘Make in India’.
105. Pema Khandu (36) of Congress Party was sworn in as the 10th Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh. With this,he became the youngest Chief Minister in the country. He was administered the oath to office and secrecy by Governor Tathagata Roy at the Rajbhavan in Itanagar.
106. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the UN cultural agency added nine new sites on its World Heritage List.new World Heritage Sites are Old city of Ani (Turkey), Zuojiang Huashan rock art cultural landscape (China), Qanat (Iran), Nalanda Mahavihara (India), Artificial islets of Nan Madol (Micronesia), Stecci Sites, Ancient Philippi (Spain), Gorham’s Cave Complex (Britain).
107. Vijender Singh becomes WBO Asia Pacific Super Middleweight champion.
108. Yatra Online, Inc. and Terrapin 3 Acquisition Corporation on 14 July 2016 entered into a definitive merger agreement. The transaction values Yatra at an enterprise value of 218 million dollars (1458 crore rupees).
109. Odisha-born bureaucrat Guruprasad Mohapatra was on 15 July 2016 appointed as the Chairman of Airports Authority of India (AAI) with effect from 19 July 2016.
110. SpaceX launched unmanned Dragon cargo capsule to International space station.
111. Nelson Mandela International Day was observed across the world on 18 July 2016 to honour the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Nelson Mandela (1918-2013).
112. Turkish musician Kudsi Erguner was appointed as the UNESCO Artist for Peace by the Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova.
113. The Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC) has become the first Indian company to issue rupee-denominated bonds “masala bonds” on London Stock Exchange (LSE). The bond will help HDFC, India’s biggest mortgage lender (home finance company) to diversify its borrowing profile and access global investors. With this issuance of masala bonds,
114. The Union Railway Ministry has launched a project to install Solar Panels in all Railway Buildings in order to reduce expenditure on electricity As part of the project, Union Railway Minister Suresh Prabhu laid the foundation stone of one Megawatt (MW) solar power plant at Amritsar Railway station in Punjab.
115. The Uttar Pradesh government has signed a MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) with the Netherlands to set up a skill development center to help farmers
116. The Rajya Sabha on 18 July 2016 passed the Regional Centre for Biotechnology Bill, 2016. The Bill seeks to establish a Regional Centre for Biotechnology in Faridabad, Haryana.
117. India’s first e-court was opened at High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad on 17 July 2016. It was inaugurated by Supreme Court judge Justice Madan B Lokur who heads the e-Committee of the Supreme Court.
118. Malcolm Turnbull was sworn in as the Prime Minister of Australia for another term.
119. The fourth tranche of the Sovereign Gold Bonds (SGB) scheme opened for subscription. SGB is government securities denominated in grams of gold. It offers an alternative to holding gold in physical form. The scheme was launched by the Union Government in October 2015. Government has fixed 3,119 Rupees per gram as the issue price for the bond in this tranche. The scheme will be open till 22 July 2016.
120. Legendary playback singer Mubarak Begum passed away in Mumbai, Maharashtra after a prolonged illness. She was 80. She is known for her singing scores of songs, duets and ghazals for Bollywood, mainly during the 1950s-1970s.
121. Indian actor, model, television personality Rohit Khandelwal won the prestigious 2016 Mr. World title. With this he became first Indian and first Asian to win the Mr. World title.
122. The Supreme Court has accepted major recommendations of Lodha Committee on reforms in BCCI (Board of Control for Cricket in India), the world’s richest cricketing body. The committee had submitted its recommendations to Supreme Court in January 2016.
123. Mohammed Shahid, one of the greatest names in Indian hockey, died on 20 July 2016 due to severe liver condition and kidney failure. He was 56.
124. Nigerian journalist Didi Akinyelure won the BBC World Service News Komla Dumor Award for 2016.
125. Advay Ramesh, a Class 10 student from Chennai, on 19 July 2016 won the prestigious Google Community Impact Award from Asia, a theme based award part of Google Science Fair 2016.
126. A Canadian university in July 2016 said that it will conduct the world's first Zika vaccine test on humans. The vaccine that is under development will be tested on humans in the near future. Until now, vaccines have been tested on mice.