Computer Notes- Programming Languages

Programming Language is a machine language (sometimes called machine code). Originally all programmers worked out every detail of the machine code, but this is hardly ever done anymore.

SOME IMPORTANT PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES


FORTRAN In 1957, the first of the major languages appeared in the form of FORTRAN. Its name stands for 'FORmula TRANslation' system. The language was designed at IBM for scientific computing. The components were very simple and provided the programmer with low level access to the computer's innards. Today, this language is considered restrictive as it only includes IF, DO and GOTO statements. 


COBOL Its name stands for 'Common Business Oriented Language'. It was designed from the ground up as the language for businessmen. Its only data types were numbers and strings of text. 

LISP In 1958, John McCarthy of MIT created the LIST Processing (or LISP) language. It was designed for Artificial Intelligence (A I) research. 

ALGOL -The ALGOL language was created by a committee for scientific use in 1958. It's major contribution is being the root of the tree that has led to such languages as Pascal, C, C++ and Java. It was also the first language with a formal grammar. 

Pascal- Pascal was begun in 1968 by Niklaus Wirth. Its development was mainly out of necessity for a good teaching tool. 

C -C was developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie while working at Bell Labs in New Jersey. The transition in usage from the first major languages to the major languages of today occurred with the transition between Pascal and C.

C+ + -C+ + was designed to organize the raw power of C using OOP, but maintain the speed of C and be able to run on many different types of computers. 
C++ is most often used in simulations, such as games. It is the language of choice in today's Computer Science courses. 

Java In the early 1990's, interactive TV was the technology of the future. Sun Microsystems decided that interactive TV needed a special, portable (can run on many types of machines) language. This language eventually became Java. In 1994, the Java project team changed their focus to the web, which was becoming 'the coal thing' after interactive TV failed. The next year, Netscape licensed Java for use in their Internet browser, Navigator. At this point, Java became the language of the future and several companies announced applications which would be written in Java, none of which came into use. 

Visual Basic- Visual Basic is often taught as a first programming language today as it is based on the BASIC language developed in 1964 by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz. BASIC is a very limited scope language and was designed for non-computer science people.

Full form of some Important Languages 

ALGOL- ALGOrithmic Language 
BASIC- Beginner's All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code 
HLL- High Level Language 
COBOL- COmmon Business Oriented Language 
LOGO- Logic Oriented Graphics Oriented LLL Low Level Language 
FORTRAN -FORmula TRANslation 
PROLOG- PROgramming in LOGic 
SNOBOL- String Oriented Symbolic Language 
COMAL- COMmon Algorithmic Language

TYPES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
First Generation Programming Languages: A first generation programming language is a machine level programming language. It consists of 1's and O's. Originally, no translator was used to compile or assemble the first generation language. The first generation programming instructions were entered through the front panel switches of the computer system. Second Generation Programming Languages: 

A second generation programming language is a term usually used to refer to some form of assembles language. Unlike first generation programming languages, the code can be read and written fairly easily by a human, but it must be converted into a machine readable form in order to run on a computer.

Third Generation Programming Languages- A third generation language (abbreviated as 3GL) is a programming language designed to be easier for a human to understand, including things like named variables. FORTRAN, ALGOL and COBOL are early examples of this sort of language. Most 'modern' languages (BASIC, C, C++) are third generation. Most of the 3GLs support structured programming. Fourth Generation Programming Languages: 

A fourth generation programming language (abbreviated as 4GL) is a programming language designed with a specific purpose in mind, such as the development of commercial business software. Such languages arose after the introduction of modern, block-structured third generation programming languages, which improved the process of software development.

 Fifth Generation Programming Languages: A fifth generation programming language (abbreviated as 5GL) is a programming language based on solving problems using constraints given to the program, rather than using an algorithm written by a programmer. Most constraint-based and logic programming languages and some declarative languages are fifth generation languages. 

Low Level Programming Languages:- A low level programming language is a language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's microprocessor. The word 'low' does not imply that the language is inferior to high level programming languages but rather refers to the reduced amount of abstraction between the language and itself; because of this, low level languages are sometimes described as being 'closer to the hardware'. 

High Level Programming Languages- A high level programming language is a programming language that is more user-friendly, to some extent platform-independent and abstract from low level computer processor operations such as memory accesses.




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