2016 Nobel Prize winners

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, and/or scientific advances.
The will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The related Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established by Sweden's central bank in 1968.
The prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden (with the exception of the peace prize, which is held in Oslo, Norway).


2016, Nobel Prize winners are:

Economics
Two U.S-based economists, Oliver Hart (U.K) of Harvard University and Bengt Holmstrom (Finland) of MIT have been awarded the 'Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel' for their contributions to contract theory.

Peace
Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end the 52-year conflict with left-wing rebels. The Nobel committee in Norway praised him for his peace agreement with FARC rebels, signed last month after four years of negotiations.

Medicine
Japan's Yoshinori Ohsumi, a cell biologist specializing in autophagy, has received the 2016 Noble Prize for Medicine. He has received the award "for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy". Ohsumi is a professor in Tokyo Institute of Technology 's Frontier Research Center.

Physics
The 2016 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to three physicists who used advanced mathematical methods to study exotic states of matter. The prize goes jointly to David J. Thouless of the University of Washington in Seattle, F. Duncan M. Haldane of Princeton University in New Jersey, and J. Michael Kosterlitz of Brown University in Rhode Island. The three physicists discovered a mathematical framework in the field of topography, to explain unexpected properties of solid materials.

Chemistry
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2016 has been awarded to Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa for developing the molecular machine. The three scientists will equally share the prize of 8 million Swedish kronor, or about $930,000.

Literature
American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature 2016 "for having created new poetic expressions. within the great American song tradition". Dylan, 75, has won numerous awards, including twelve Grammys and one Academy Award.

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