SSC Notes- Agricultural Seasons in India

Agricultural Seasons in India:
Agricultural Seasons in India

1. The Kharif Season:
Crops are sown at the beginning of south-west monsoon and harvested at the end of the south-west monsoon.
Sowing Season: May to July.
Harvesting Season : September to October.

Important Crops: Jowar, Bajra, Rice, Maize, Cotton, Groundnut, Jute, Hemp, Tobacco etc.

2. The Rabi Season:
Crops need cool climate during growth period but warm climate during the germination of seed and maturation.
Sowing Season: October to December
Harvesting Season: February to April

Important Crops: Wheat, Barley, Gram, Linseed, Mustard, Masoor & Peas.

3. The Zaid Season:
These Crops are raised throughout the year due to artificial irrigation.

1. Zaid Kharif Crops:

Sowing Season:
August to September
Harvesting Season: December-January

Important Crops: Rice, Jowar, Rapeseed, Cotton, Oilseeds.

2. Zaid Rabi Crops:

Sowing Season
: February to March.

Harvesting Season: April-May.

Important Crops: Watermelon, Toris, Cucum­ber & other vegetables.

Major Crops:
The crops are divided into two major groups. Food grains and non-food grains.

Rice- Rice cultivation is concentrated mainly in the Northern plains which have alluvial soils and adequate water supply. West Bengal is the leading producer of rice.
Top three producer states are West Bengal, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.

Wheat:Loamy soils of Northern plains and black soils of Deccan are suited for wheat cultivation.
Top three states producing Wheat are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana.

Coarse Cereals / Millets- They are kharif crops and grow in less rainy areas in the following order – Ragi (damp areas), Jowar (moist areas) and Bajra (dry areas). They require high temperature and less rainfall.
They can be grown in inferior alluvial or loamy soil. Top three states with maximum production of total coarse cereals are Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Rajasthan.

Pulses Most pulses are leguminous crops and provide proteins to the vegetarian population. Major pulses of India include Gram, Tur or arhar (Pigeon Pea or Red Gram), urd (black gram), mung (green gram), masur (lentil), kulthi (horse gram), matar (peas) etc.

Non-Food Crops/Cash crops:

Sugarcane -In India, it is one of the most important Kharif crops.

Cotton Cotton is the most important fibre crop and cotton seed is used as a vegetable oil and a part of fodder for milch cattle for better milk production. Optimum soil for cotton is the Black soils of Deccan and Malwa plateau.

Groundnut- Groundnut is most important oil seeds of India. Grown as both as kharif and Rabi crop but 90-95% of the total area is devoted to kharif crop. Well drained light sandy loams, red, yellow and black soils are well suited for its cultivation.


1. Cotton:
It is a kharif crop and is known as the king among fibres. India is the fourth largest producer in the world. It requires warm climate and high tem­perature.

2. Jute:
Jute was called the golden fibre of Indian sub continent. India is the second largest producer of Jute in the world after Bangladesh. Jute grows well in well-drained fertile soils or in the flood plains.

Plantation Crops:

1. Tea:India is the leading producer of tea, and it requires a temperature of 24°C to 30°C. Rainfall on an average should be above 200cm. The soil should be deep fertile and well drained where water does not stagnate.

Coffee-  Coffee needs hot and humid climate with temperature varying between 15°C and 28°C. It is generally grown under shady trees.